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From 'Now' to Dark Matter

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Anecdotes and Thought Experiments

Sept 1999 - July 2007

Some thought provoking humor and a revisit to Michelson & Morley experiment, shown in Fig. 1

One of the earlier thought experiments was resolved by Galileo at the infamous Leaning tower, dropping a jumbo and small pizza tied together and if they fell faster or slower or the same. The one I liked was the Bird in the box, flying or on its perch - yet a black box is a black box - was it lighter or heavier - the same conundrum as juggling three objects walking across an over-stressed bridge. But as profound as the former with regard to inertia, the later were simple dynamic integrations.

But what of flying in the Concorde, east to west vs west to east, being heavier or lighter respectively? True in both cases. The Concorde can fly 1000 Km/hr in either direction in the rotating atmosphere but in Mach’s universe, one is standing still, the other sailing along at 2000 km/hr in centrifugal motion. Similar but a little tougher was the ‘L10’ habitat, a neutral Lagrange point of Jupiter , a large rotating cylinder in space to offer the the locals 1g on the rim and the fate of a denizen that pushes off from the center toward the rim with/without an atmosphere. If you want to think it out, in one case he splats on the ground, on the other he splats on the side of a building. Try to imagine the different trajectories and his different fates. Both could be fatal. Of course everything is relative but Mach’s universe makes the difference. How often have we heard of the space twin in Relativistic travel or even the speeding train with two observers of a similar event? Is it relativistic or does Mach make a difference?

There are many clocks in the universe, essentially atomic clocks that hum to their own mechanics, either absorbing or emitting specific frequencies. These appear analogous or inherently tied to our bio-clocks and as best we know, they may be speeded or slowed in different velocity or gravitational environments. But too in modern physics, it is all terribly equivalent - meaning you can’t tell one damn player from another. So bear with me on a more complicated thought experiment. In a way it’s diabolical as established in Relativity: The velocity of light (Voc) is constant to all observers but light-frequencies and bio-clocks are not. To further muddy the issues as expressed herein:

Singularities are the antitheses of physical reality. Yet modern cosmology has one in Black-holes and another in the Big bang. I’m biased and not so sure of these but I’ll certainly consider something like it for ‘Time’. It is not a continuum or a dimension but a phenomenon ‘Now’, the only place where change can occur everywhere in space to the finest resolution anyone may wish to judge. All ‘nows’ are common - there is nothing else, and with multiple observers the effects must be distributed and in fact yield an interpreted playing field. It is all so obvious on a large objective scene, particularly with new modern toys!

As one such, a Doppler beacon is a clever device. It has two elements, a transmission frequency controlled by a physical standard like a quartz crystal (the natural clock) and a repeating modulation frequency to an incoming interrogation signal. The mod frequency is a slave to what is received and a single wavelength cannot be lost. In distant space communication, markers can be introduced to assure the precise wave response - this cycle is the one sent, and later this is the same one received back. But more importantly, there is hardly a single observer in a modern hi-tech govt-subsidized experiment so let’s re-review the paradox of the space-twins. Again in modern fertility terms, they're quadruplets.

The Modern NASA Space Observers
The observers are: SAH: Bert, the stay at home, HT: the heavy twin in a gravitational well, FT: the fast traveler, and AT: the accelerating twin Other than Bert, each is affected by a 1/10 c factor of gravity well, velocity or acceleration respectively and each has a 1 Mhertz beacon with a 1 Khertz modulator frequency. While these are not easy environments to create or as easy to communicate as Houston to the space-shuttle, they are hypothetically possible and might produce the following exchange:

HT to SAH “You sound like a chipmunk. I’m receiving your beacon at 1.1 Mhertz with a 1.1 Khertz modulation frequency, 10% over your crystal standard and my bio-rate.”

SAH to HT “Read you loud and clear as a baritone elephant. I tuned your transponder in at 0.9 Mhertz but my modulator return is at a steady 1 Khertz. Your clock is slow but there appears to be no motion between us. In ten years you going to be a year younger than me and owe me an extra B-day present.”

SAH to FT “Just talking to HT, how do you read me?”

FT to SAH “Now you sound like the baritone elephant. Both your beacon and mod are 10% low at 0.9 Mhertz and 0.9 Khertz.”

SAH back to FT “Well FT, your really sailing out there. Your transponder is at 0.9 Mhertz too but my mod response is 0.81 Khertz. I’m getting a double whammy on both your velocity and your time dilation. Now, how do you read HT?”

FT to SAH “Well HT’s transponder is coming in at 0.9 Mhertz but that should be due strictly to my recessional velocity because technically we should have the same bio-clock rates, mine from velocity, his from gravity. I’ll bet if my velocity was orbital we’d be more in sync on both frequencies .”

HT to SAH “Copy that, complicated enough. So here’s what I’ve got (in Mhertz):
Emitter 1000 out, 1100 received by HT 1000 out, 900 return to me.
Mod 1.0 out, 1.10 received “ “ 1.10 out, 1.0 return, the same.
Emitter 1000 out, 900 received by FT, 1000 out, 900 return”
Mod 1.0 out, 0.90 received “ “ 0.90 out, 0.81 return, double effect.”

In the meantime SAH forgot about poor AT and in less than a minute his sibling was gone and forever red-shifted to oblivion like he fell into a Black-hole. He should have spoken to him first for a quick good by. Just as well, the dynamics are similar but more confusing.

So what have we ascertained? First at low velocities, the effects are linear and additive and when all the Universe is included the additions imply a fixed space. Granted, all the siblings could have a common ballistic velocity vector undetectable save for the relationship with the cosmic background as we do at 350 km/sec ourselves. For example FT is traveling with a red-shift to his SAH brother, but blue-shifted to his forward celestial sphere. And while HT sees a red-shifted celestial sphere in every direction, he can deduce the bio-rate and or velocity of SAH or FT respectively.

The major point of all this is that collectively we can think of space as absolute, having an intrinsic ‘now’ simultaneous everywhere but not necessarily the same clock rates and while the Voc appears constant to each observer, it is not constant in the larger Mach reference. Here we can think of space as thinner or thicker with a variable Voc tied to it. The gravity well is well established - no pun intended, the velocity swell of the FT is not as well imagined nor the basis of its physical difference other than the recognized quantity of kinetic energy of his momentum. Yet while all this produces a grand equivalence, it still leaves us to figure out why.

In this experiment, we can ascribe to two potential red-shift (or time dilation) factors: Both the gravitational well and the ballistic velocity yield the slower clocks. To make the total picture complete we must add three more cosmic factors: However they are inherently tied together and individually inseparable, in that sliver of distant cosmic knowledge - Look-back. Are the values of Time flow, Expanding space and Gravitational density as invariant or defined as our assumed Velocity of light over time. The thought experiment has taken us out of the equivalence solo-observer box but is far from resolving the total potential cosmic clues to what any distant ‘aged’ observation really means or if ‘now’ makes a better universal invariant than the Voc.

As a final consideration, Einstein mused that if he could travel at the Voc, he would travel across the Universe in an instant, eg. one momentary ‘now’ to himself. This is an enigma only in that as much as his ‘now’ is stretched (slowed down), incrementally it still corresponds to all other ‘nows’ as his light beam chugs along at a mere one light-year/year through space. He would also be on a collision course with one of our ‘now’s’ if we occupy the same space at the same time as he whistles by. I don’t think we can have it both ways, even as a thought experiment. The next example expands the idea of multiple observers to an effective infinite number. Bert remains the shill.

Andrea and Kuiper Station
A short Science-de-fiction story July 1995
We have often heard of the story of the Relativistic Space-Twins Paradox, somewhat remote in space and distant star travel, parted for many years and the question of who aged, as if there weren't many factors involved in such a process. Maybe the following is in the 21st Century where the paradox long disappeared in the real word of pragmatic high-speed and congestion in intra-solar-system space traffic and where it has its 'mundane' concerns.

Andrea our exo-biologist space traveler had just finished her seminar at Kuiper Station, one of the most remote Solar System deep space outposts, within the Kuiper belt of comets, an active place of research and 100 AU from the Sun. Bert, our earth stay-at-home was not her twin but rather her fiancee' and as we will see a much more important relationship. Recall one astronomical unit or AU, is the earth distance from the sun and approximately equal to 8 light-minutes, the time it takes for sunlight to reach us.

She was scheduled for the Red-eye* home to earth after the conference and while she was no physicist she had a pretty good idea of the realities of the trip. She was 800 light-minutes from earth and beside the 16 hour trip there was a little more involved. First was the mandatory 1/2 hour in the Transporter Room at the beginning and end of the flight for acceleration and deceleration. While the Transporter was totally unlike the imaginary Star-Trek device, a quite impossible technological concept, this unit accomplished the high exotic accelerations on the human body with little physical awareness, similar to immersion in a liquid but a good deal more sophisticated. It permitted the rapid acceleration of the spacecraft as it quickly approached near-light velocities, in effect bringing the passengers harmlessly along. Literally, if you weren't in the device you would be squashed like a bug. Thereafter they were free to roam the ship.

But to Andrea, equally important were the bio-time adjustments over the trip and like the acceleration something she hardly felt but had to take into account. Time was not what it appeared. It was easy to retire an extra hour earlier to assure her proper beauty sleep but she had to be more precise on her wake-up time. It took her a full hour to shower, coiffeur and dress, so if she was shorted 20% by their Warp 0.9 speed, it had to be made up elsewhere or she would look like she aged 10 years instead of younged a few hours over the trip. Other than their 'Sulu clock'* there was no discernible way to know of their time dilation with respect to the earth except the accumulated shortage when they reconnected to the earth's standard at the trip's end. And like airline schedules they presented the airport arrival time not the traveler's watch time. Too late then and adjustments had to be planned backward from the arrival time.

The ship's Sulu clock in her room readily displayed the 20% difference in her bio-time rate vs. the universal or absolute time of the solar system. It was not a complicated device, only a slave off the master Sulu clock of the spacecraft. But even the ship's clock was not a true Sulu time piece, an expensive device sensing "all relativistic factors'*, integrating and computing the time of Starfleet Command's 'Now' on earth. For a regular passenger ship, it simply measured the Doppler frequency shifts of the standard star references like Canopus and Arcturus and kept a simple gravitational potential map of the Solar system in its ROM, readily computing the ships time dilation and maintaining the Sulu time integral on all the ship displays.

So there was never any doubt who was doing the traveling and being affected by Warp velocities. If she arrived home a few hours younger, that would be hardly be noticed by her fiancee but if she looked like a haggard traveler that would be her fault. She also knew the acceleration portion of the trip, so short, had little to do with it but that it was the integral of the time at the warp velocity that counted or in this case shorted when she ultimately reconnected to earth time.

The old myth of everything being relative and nothing absolute disappeared in the real word of crowded space-space (still called air-space in Earth's atmosphere) and the avoidance of the basic law of physics that no two things can occupy the same place at the same time, e.g. collision. The confusing term simultaneous and different reference frames, the delight of mathematicians and magicians, gave way to the simple recognition that everybody's 'Now' is the same and there is simpler ways than crashing together and comparing clocks to prove it. Indeed, the most effective method was everyone accepting and carrying Sulu time. While Starfleet Command totally monitored all objects in the larger system, it was still the responsibility of each ship to keep a local eye (computation), because there is such a thing as defensive driving, and there is always the irrational nut that swerves where he doesn't belong. But this was a pretty routine flight and she expected to meet her lover at the US Spaceport with everything fully anticipated and just perfect after a long week away from home.

Andrea’s Glossary*
Sulu Time - Analogous and equal to Zulu time, a slang moniker for the Greenwich earth standard but for the whole Solar system and named after the Starship Enterprise Bridge Officer, Captain Sulu.
Red-eye - An euphemism for an over-night jet aircraft flight, referring to the traveler arriving short a decent night's sleep.
Warp velocity - A ratio of travel velocity with respect to the velocity of light, a number allowed to exceed 1 in science fiction writings as is physically possible in Mach velocities in the atmosphere.
All relativistic factors - Yes Virginia! - It’s just a matter of precision or common-sense to distinguish if you are in a gravitational field or an accelerating spaceship (Equivalence Principle), either precision to measure the spherical distortion or common-sense to integrate the effect over a long duration.

Casey at the Throttle Sept 1995
Casey had plenty of experience from the school of hard knocks, literally and figuratively speaking, unquestionably brave and courageous in his colorful Railroad career associated with the two great clichés of the business: 'That no two trains can occupy the same space at the same time' and if they do, the admonition that 'This is no way to run a railroad!'.

But the front office of Relativity Rail Inc., always trying to keep modern and at the same time save a few dollars, was about to give him the first run on a single track with two-way traffic. He was skeptical but willing to learn what they proposed. The concept was simple, space and time were no longer Newtonian-Euclidean (N-E) absolutes but rather Relativistic and space and time were co-mensurate and were a true space-time continuum. It was time to put theory into practice. They presented the paradox he was to test: Was it possible for two trains traveling in opposite directions on a single track (one space dimension) to safely pass each other on the Space-Time field by speed manipulation. From his mundane experience he knew this was quite impossible unless the track had a parallel spur and the timing of their passing was carefully taken into account. He had pulled off this diversional maneuver many times in the past.

Simultaneous now had new meaning. Relativity theory has clearly demonstrated that different moving reference frames do not experience 'common nows' as in the N-E space with an absolute grid of space and time which could only yield the unavoidable crash. Further he was given a powerful new locomotive that would permit him a pretty dramatic range of Sub-light velocities and that the Space-time field he was to traverse was not to be significantly different than the two dimensions of the space spur with which he was wholly familiar. He was informed that he need only manipulate the velocity such that the two trains did not have common 'Nows' when they occupied common space.

Casey was a little apprehensive when his operations chief showed him a World Line diagram and tried to explain that his space-time spur was essentially the same two dimensional concept with which he was familiar. Admittedly, the diagram looked a good deal more complicated. It displayed the velocity of light limits and the array of lesser velocity options he may wish to take. Even the spur looked different, but not to worry, it was there!

But still Casey wondered: Didn't the mundane example really have three dimensions - two of space and one of time? But his chief argued that one was superfluous, that in fact the trains could stop anywhere and while stationary prove only two dimensions were necessary further assuring him that time and its continuum with space could be those minimum two. The test was not trivial. If the two trains could not safely pass, there was but one of two possible conclusions: Casey messed it up again or truly Casey could not separate common nows from a common space, proving there was no space-time continuum but rather just the old fashion N-E absolute matrix and a consequent assured crash. The modern Relativistic world depended on his technological finesse to pull this one through.
As the big day came, there was still a certain amount of hedging: One prediction stated they would crash but have different 'Nows' But even Casey knew better and that if they did, they were assured to have at least one common but fatal 'Now'. One interpretation stated: maybe an atomic particle but not a train. But than was a cop-out, Relativity equations had no intrinsic granularity factor. Another interpretation decreed that as they approached closer together, their 'Nows' would reconnect. But if this was true, an infinite number of such loci would again be the absolute N-E field. You can't have it both ways. What other hedge factor do you perceive or is your money on Casey?

While the record is not clear as to the outcome or as to whether it was this adventure or just a more mundane calamity at an earlier time, poor Casey remains a great hero of circumstance in the annals of Railroad lore.

Dark Matter Dan A ponderous discovery Aug 1999
Dark Matter Dan, as he has become to be known, was more in character with Hans Solo, the independent space jock of star wars past, likely to be found anywhere along or outside the standard intergalactic trade routes. It was on such an excursion Dan sensed - probably randomly observed - some instrument deviations along his travel path. While others might have just barreled thru, he slowed his space craft to a non-relativistic crawl and did a lazy figure-8 over a parsec of space - particularly noticing a gravitational field of sorts - or at least the perturbations of one on his visual horizon references. Within the limits of his rather archaic navigation sensors, he took a number of fixes as he glided around the rather bizarre area.

Here he was, if not bound by a vast non-visible ponderable object, he was at least strangely influenced. As he scanned about not sure of direction, there was no brown dwarf present, considered a possible Macho, or any abnormal radiation readings, a possible indicator of theoretical Wimps that he could associate with such an abnormality. He performed every schoolboy experiment he could on acceleration and bending space and determined as he orbited or just fell in a variety of trajectories the great object was indeed real. Even his celestial reference background was wildly distorted as if he was buried in a big refractory lens. With its transparent nature and undistinguished center, failing the test of other suggested dark matter sources, he declared it to be ‘Gello’, a kind of thick gravitational space but with substance like Jello.

Without ponderable matter, what held the field together? Supposedly over vast regions of the galactic center - still far and many klicks ( 1000 lyr. in space jargon) beyond any human exploration - there seemed to be more gravitational field than accountable visible objects could deliver. In fact, it was the one legitimate claim to dark matter other than the arbitrary theoretical one of closing a finite universe, the latter he thought flaky and just wishful thinking of idealists. He could care less about feelings of ‘closure’.

He considered if the gravitational field itself may have been its own ponder-ability and wondered if it was possibly ephemeral and destined to dissipate in the broader expanding universe scheme. But why, what had he discovered? - an outlier of another dense region or slow delay constant from some former mass concentration or maybe a new cosmological unknown? Or possibly the converse, a thicker space growing in the great attractive environment. More questions than answers but he was aware too that conceptually space had become a lot more complicated then when it was declared totally void way back in Michelson-Morley days.

But alas, like jumping off a fast train in the middle of a vast desert, he was stranded. While far from a Black-hole it was still a significant gravitational pit. Consequently this distraction blew his thrust energy reserves and he was forced to expended his meager measure of time in remote oblivion and his whole foolish experience passed on no more than this incomplete cryptic message. Supposedly only his old buddy Bert, picked up his last space transmission on a lesser backward channel with a deep base voice he had to fast forward to recognize as his friend. Unfortunately the pair of them were considered unreputable in the high-tech world. Even the what, where and when got lost. To this date it has been considered more a myth and legend than a probable explanation for dark matter or thick space or deter the intense search for more acceptable and behaved Machos & Wimps.

The Times & Perils of Dixie Qu Nov 2001
While this yarn might suggest some humor, it is gravely serious. Until given identity, we can not be aware how this poor unheralded lass has been used, abused and even ignored.

Dixie Qu (dx3) has lived a relevant, actually exciting intellectual life over the ages, but is terribly sequestered and surrounded. She has 26 immediate neighbors but only six close and face on. Twelve are knife edge on with no direct influence and 8 more in point contact and vanishingly unimportant. That's her whole world. She regards her space as very private and while she deals with certain line and surface problems (dx, dx2), mostly hypothetical, and courts that other dimension of time to give meaning to changes in objects (dx/dt), she knows she is fundamental and the center of intellectual inquiry, essentially ‘here and now’.

While she was but a twinkle in many earlier eyes from Euclid, Euler & Format, she had in effect two fathers, Newton and Liebniz, but as we will see the former had more influence on her character. While her father made great strides in explaining gravity’s behavior, an apple falling from a tree and the planets staying in their orbs, he was troubled by the concept of ‘force at a distance’ and in his heart felt Dixie Qu and all her neighbors, somehow, was responsible, each in their own way to put reality into the effect. He was not alone.

While essentially talking about electricity & magnetism, it was Maxwell who taught her perfect manors and tidy housekeeping. While she might possess many things, she need only to pay heed and maintain bookkeeping with her six facing neighbors, whether things were static, coming or going, pushing or pulling. It was only curl or spin which was somewhat outside her direct perception and needed cooperation with others and as yet a confusing idea to many, most originally Mach. Of significance, Einstein used her many different ways. In the Equivalence principle, he emphasized there was no way poor Dixie Qu could distinguish her existence as to whether in an accelerating spaceship or standing in a gravitational field and it didn’t end there. While many other authors positively expanded her role with stress & strain, relaxation rates, sheer & flow and turbulence, and with all these things, a melding of materials and process, yielded all the wonders we have today from things of pleasure to things of terror unknown but a few centuries ago. Still, all these things face hard core reality and if appear untrue or misbehave, lack only more precision or better detail in formulation. But there was another turn in a deeper look at the night sky. With advanced instruments, observations and concepts this new arena has confused, ignored or even slandered her character.

While the ideas developed over the last century, briefly, starting with Hubbell's observation that distant galaxies appearing to be receding, the Big bang paradigm came into an impressive existence. Here it is surmised at one instant, with no prior instant, she was everything, totally ponderous, overheated and excited with absolutely no neighbors. Then in each doubling duration, yielded to her new neighbors, 7/8 of her former self. Bad enough, but was compelled to do this in 59 doublings of space & time since the universe was but one second old, and maybe even many more times before coming to the ultimate oblivion. This could wear one thin. Does she have any reality at all? But that’s only one of the complications. Einstein created a few others. Because the velocity-of-light (Voc) always measure constant from any direction or any framework, Dixie Qu had to be wedded to old man Time, everywhere and hence forth unseparated and called Space-Time.

Did this give her any needed substance? No! It expanded her further and in many places slowed her down and confined her in a well. Most bizarre, on the edge of a Black hole, in effect she didn’t exist on the inside and at the surface on the outside, not only totally lost 9 of her neighbors, but found herself infinitely vast but without any substance and buried dead with Time. If we yield that the Big bang is a special time or that a Black hole is a rare place, things we have never visited, there are yet other embarrassments. There is some feeling she lacks 90-99% of the ponderosity she should have (called Closure) or maliciously hides a significant percent of ponderosity a galaxy seems to have (called Dark matter) and lately accused of exposing herself in a new garment never seen before, Negative energy, causing her to expand even faster than ever.

Granted, many don’t care but some that do, do not seem troubled by this lack of reality and impropriety imposed on Dixie Qu - she that has given us everything we physically have. I think greater respect is due and I do see some hope on the horizon.

Dirac with notable fame, was the first to theorize there was more to Dixie Qu than met the eye and it took Casimir to actually measure something deeper within. So now, what we scrutinize as the space fabric, holds a good deal more substance than the early void of Michelson-Morley. Much more could be done to rectify Dixie Qu’s nature and reality over all of space & time than has been honestly considered by asking legitimate questions mostly ignored. We have heard of Einstein’s greatest mistake associated with the Cosmological constant, but I’m not sure whether it will prove to be putting it in or leaving it out. In essence, the constant ignores Dixie Qu’s role and recreates Newton’s nemesis - Something at a distance, and in part leading (forcing) us down a path of Dark matter, Negative energy and Gravity singularities. This is not totally a ‘happy’ bandwagon of obtuse imagination. Hoyle-Burbidge-Narlikar may well come to the rescue to restore reality to many of Dixie Qu’s problems in their Quasi Steady state theory. I recommend it for those that care.

Here I’ve tried to reinstate the notion of real space, no matter how contorted the variables of time, mass or energy play on her character. Is there other ways to interpret space over time? I’ve discussed many of these ideas in Cosmic Concerns, the theme of this website.
Below is a potentially viable experiment for testing space as an absolute medium for light transmission.

A different approach to cosmology; F Hoyle, G Burbidge, J Narlikar, 2000, Cambridge Univ Press
Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 1984, Doubleday & Co

Revisiting Michelson & Morley and Cosmic background dependence July 2007
Not a new issue, in the pivotal Aether medium test, Michelson & Morley in 1887, considered the earth’s vs light’s movement in the cosmic environment, yet their physical apparatus was earth bound, static and locked into a single Biorate observer (See definition in Paradox, the first essay). As we know their result was a null. In a revisiting of the definitive experiment, today we might significantly modify their experimental setup in a much larger scale, with multiple ‘equivalent’ Biorate observers including significant different velocities. In essence, the experiment described here is radically expanded with modern instruments equal to the task of checking Cosmic background dependancy of space on a test platform Michelson & Morley could only dream of.

The attached figure outlines the setup for two synchronous satellites (Syn-sats) and the earth, all in a relative fixed platform. Save rotation this is a Relativistic fixed framework. The equilateral triangular arrangement depicted has oversized dimensional values to exaggerate the things to be observed. Specifically with Doppler beacons, the numbers chosen here demonstrate the forward vs. reverse loop times that might be expected at a glance. The critical question: Does intervening space between the satellites exhibit its own environment independent of observers. Below the diagram are the distances and velocities that actual synchronous satellites would have to have and the micro-milli-second differences that would be expected to be attained in modern instrumentation. The fact the two Syn-sats are fixed with respect to each other and the earth, yet traveling about 2.0 km/second is a very relevant difference from M & M.

This Syn-sat pair environment, while close to earth is sufficiently separated with both Relativistic gravitational and clock rate considerations while spacially fixed with each other. The true test is to demonstrate the space differences as Cosmic dependent or special reference frame dependent, in this case, effectively a rotating 50 k-mile dynamic plane. Just as we know our Cosmic background velocities of the sun & earth system, from background spectra shifts, in this fixed Syn-sat platform we can ascertain a dependent/independent inter-space environment and have it measurable over different seasonal orientations with respect to both the sun and the galaxy. Another significant difference is while there is only one earth observer, with the Doppler beacons it can be interpreted that there are three independent Biorate observers. With the frequent Syn-sat replacements and the appropriate hardware, this experiment could be accomplished in a relatively near future.

This experiment is relevant to my thesis paper ‘From ‘Now’ to Dark matter, for not only settling the issue of Cosmic background dependence (CBD) but rectifying the incongruities of the present Cosmic background independence (CBI) consensus which could provide additional justification for my Gre theory interpretations. Further, while I admit potential for Gre flux anisotropy (non-uniform div and curl) in galactic scales, such influence should be miniscule in a solar system environment and our peripheral galactic location. I think a serious aspect of the problem is the mathematics of CBI and its broad use. It might be convenient, work locally, yet it must be the last holdout of antropic self-centeredness in the universe. It might be elegant but it can’t be reality.

It is also worth noting this test configuration is significantly different than the present GPS multiple satellite system where each satellite carries its own clock and ground positions are determined from independent sources. CBD or CBI is not relevant.

An imaginary equilateral arrangement - Syn-sat velocities 1/2 c, equilateral triangle legs - 1 c
Doppler time sum - CBD - Forward loop = 3.75 sec.
Reverse loop = 2.68 sec.
If Relativistic - CBI - either loop = 3.00 sec.

The actual Syn-sat variables
Radius = 22k+ 5k mi. = 30k km
Circumference = 2 pi r = 180 k km/86400 sec/day = 2 km/sec orbital velocity
If 60o apart, 180 k km/6 = 30 k km or 0.1 c seconds apart,
using the ratios above, the Forward/reverse loop difference = 0.035 seconds
Sun/galactic and earth/solar orbital velocities - Earth +&- 30 km/sec., Sun - 350 km/sec

Hardware description - Each of the three Doppler beacons are identical with originator and repeater controls. They also need two directional antennas properly oriented and selectable to establish the loop directions. Only the earth site needs the return delay calculator although any of the three could be selected to sense that role if so designed.
What is different here, even if there are Lorentzian dimensional or clock rate modifications, the two loop directions have different space transmission durations not hidden by a single observer (each beacon both receives and retransmits, acting like a surrogate human in his own Relativistic sterile world). As such the doppler beacons with their modulation markers will faithfully close the triangle in the forward & reverse directions. If there is no difference, it’s a CBI universe, if not it’s an absolute space CBD universe regardless of what Relativity implies.

I have no awareness of this experiment having been done, but if so and the result is a CBI result, I would be dumbfounded that we apparently live in a mathematical Relativistic universe rather than a Machian one. And would still have a hard time believing it.

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